Qauv muaj pes tsawg leeg Sociology

Qauv muaj pes tsawg leeg Sociology

Dawb cov websites ntawm PDF qhia uas nyob rau hauv ob xyoo kawm ntawv qib siab undergraduate kawm cov neeg ua hauj lwm ntawm kev kawm ntawv no yuav tsum tuaj tias lawv tab tom pib tsim cov rog tseem ceeb thiab kawm mus ntsuam xyuas hniav thiab tseem tab tom xyaum qoob loo rau lawv tuav tsis tshua nyob hauv cov kev kawm xaiv.them ib tug neeg ua kuv sau ntawv Lawv yuav tsum tau mus raws qhov seem tswj kom paub thiab muab fought lus teb rau cov lus nug thiab tshooj compound, thiab muaj tias lawv yeej paub txog tag nrho cov teeb scrolls nrog rau cov ntawv nyeem ntxiv txog cov lus tsis txaus siab thiab kev thuam nyob rau hauv lawv cov teeb meem. Lawv yuav tau mus yuav muaj yuav yooj yim nrog cov kablus ntawm kev sau ntawv uas yog qhia ntaub ntawv thiab nws yog lwm tus no raws tias nws qhov ncauj ntau dua los qhia, Yog hais tias lawv muaj kheej los yog kev flair. Lawv kuj tseem yuav tsum tau ua dabneeg uas mus txog rau 3000 nqe lus thaum uas soj ntsuam coursework hauv-ntev mus. Cov lom yog los ntawm kev soj ntsuam txog cov hoob kawm ob xyoos uas muaj kev txhawj xeeb nyob hauv kev xav. Tus nqi ntawm researching cov ntaub ntawv hauv caug uas yuav tuag yog dab tsi? Yog sociology thiab obsessed nrog rau lub classics? Lub glib thiab lub teeb lo lus teb rau lo lus nug tus thawj heev qhov yog tias txoj hauj lwm yog li no tsis unworthy kev saib xyuas, thiab ntawm lub thinkers zoo heev ntawm yesteryear posseses tus muaj txog tus nimno. Tejzaum nws, cuaj kaum, lus teb no tsi muaj glib li txawm tias nkawd chiv tau pom, tab sis qhov ntawd puas tau founded dua ib tseeb uas yog siv. Nyob sau ntawv no kuv mam ua tus dag zog rau nws tsis pom zoo uas yog qhov tseeb hais, uas cuab yeej cuab tam classical ntawm sociology kuj paab txo nws hwj lub ntxim rau cov niaj hnub xav haib. Comte, Spencer, Marx Simmel thiab Durkheim: nineteenth-xyoo pua cov npe uas muaj rau lub zej zog tej zaum yuav pom by way of ib nyuag sojntsuam txog cov lingo siv nta dejnum uas muaj kev txhawj xeeb kev. Yeej yuav tau sib tham txog txoj, neeg txom nyem, tsev, muaj nuj nqi, los yog kev ntseeg tsis tau recourse rau ntawm hom kawm tswvyim, yus lub qe, drawback thiab anomie’ ntawm lub moj khaum, sib tham los yog societal phenomena – hwm cov uas tau meticulously kawm thiab researched ntawm no ua ntej lawm pros. Auguste Comte ua ib lo lus sociology thaum nyob rau thaum ntxov nineteenth-xyoo pua. Nyob raws li nws tau ua tsis pub dhau lub caij uas cov kiv puag ncig Fabkis, thiab tib lub sijhawm cov poj societal kev poob plig, uncertainty thiab disorganisation, nws musthave txog tej lub zoo kawg li yuav tsum ua ib txheej txheem xav zoo zoo txog qhov uas yuav qhia tau tus cwjpwm yog kev cai ntawm cov txiv neej xav, thiab muaj tej hom counterbalance los tsis ua seemingly puab cov koom haum organised. qhov kev tshawb kawm thiab vim li cas ntawm cov Enlightenment kubsiab Comte. Nws muaj kev kom pej xeem intellect tau hloov mus rau koj lub sij hawm uas nws yuav qhia tias koj tus cwjpwm hauj thiab xaiv qhov ua ntej lub tshuab. Comte tus khiav tau thaum nyob hauv vib this zag tshawb fawb thiab nws txoj kev yog ib tug uas yog positivist: txhua yam txuj ci yuav tsum yeej yuav nyob hlub tus ntawm cov pov thawj with regards to paub canons. Credo Comte tus yuav tau summed thaum uas nyob rau cov nqe lus "to taub raws li ib txoj kev kom tomntej tseem twv seb yog ib txoj kev los tiv thaiv" (Coser thiab Rosenberg, 1964, p.2). Nws yog ib qhov lus nug uas tswj-which, Cov neeg pab leg ntaubntawv Dawe, yog tus clash li niaj hnub sociology lub hauv paus. Yog peb pom sociology ua tau tsim los ntawm cov pa ib cov tshuaj tiv thaiv rau cov Innovation raws li lub kiv puag ncig Industrial, ces peb yuav tsum saib nws tus kheej sociology nyiam muaj ib cov tshuaj tiv thaiv rau cov teeb meem ntawm societal. Txhag cia thinkers, notably cov Christian, qhov kev kawm rov ib societal kev txiav txim thaum in the face of lub subversive, anti- neeb rationalism ntawm cov Enlightenment, tus mob mayhem ntawm lub kiv puag ncig Fabkis thiab, afterwards, lub evils ntawm industrialisation. Yog ib qho hauv zej zos los ua txuas nrog sib nrauj faiv li Comte' s lwm saib neeg. Ceev faj teb tsim ntawv Hobbes saib ntawm lub caug nyob rau lub li "keev xeeb, muaj zog, phem phem, txhais hais tias, tsuas siv thiab brutish" (Hobbes, Leviathan. Hauv hauv kuv, Ch.13). Yog li no, tus txiv neej yuav tsum txwv rau zej zog kom muaj nuj nqi saum cov teeb creatures. Lub internalisation ntawm cov xyuas yuav ua tau ib tug yam ntxwv ntawm Durkheim lub chaw ua hauj lwm hauv kuab solidarity, thiab kuj nyob Weber' s tshawb xyuas cov ntaub ntawv. Raws li springing ntawm koj lub tswv yim ntawm cov Enlightenment, qhov uas peb yuav daws kev mob nrog tswv yim neeg liberation thiab ib tug neeg yooj nonetheless scenario, Peb kuj yuav saib sociology. Qhov no, cov uas yog ib tug ntawm cov tswj: yog vim li cas thiaj neeg restore tswj lag manmade? Li no yog ib tug contradiction ntawm koj lub lag luam ntawm ib sab nrauv kev txheej txheem uas muaj xiv txwv, thiab tseem rau lub tswv yim ntawm txoj kev sib. Tus txheej txheem tswvyim uas yog societal uas tau muab rau koj tus kheej kev nyab zeeb claims, cov neeg muaj existed ua ntej los ntawm haiv neeg: tus saib yuav mus. Taub yam kev cai ntseeg hais tias tus txiv leej tub yog autonomous yeej thiab tau tsim muaj kev cai txiav txim li fought ntawm Marx thaum tsis muaj pawg . Txuas ntxiv tom qab tej hauj lwm ntawm kev sociologists’ Txawm hais tias yog li muaj ib, ntawm ib pawg tsis ua sociological tswv yim’ kev atomism tiv tiag holism, individualism ntev collectivism. Yog li no peb twb Durkheimideal ntawm "ib sociology pum rationalist individualism tab sis ntxiv thiab hais lus saib taus kev ntsuam" (Aron, Thawj Currents nyob Sociological xav. 1968, p.97). Yog zoo li no Marx tus clash ntawm nws lw tus humanitarian hauv lawv chav txivneej uas yog lub thiab nws tu siab heev pom paiv txog xyoo pua nineteenth capitalists. Gouldner (1971) zoo li no npaj siab tias muaj tseeb muaj ambiguity thiab teeb meem hauv sociology xam qhovkev vim nyuas thiab lub zej zog cov neeg tsim designs, tab sis yuav tsum ua li ib tug ntawm lawv tus kheej heev thiaj los ntawm lawv tus founder. Tej zaum nws yog argued tias nws yog qhov xwm ntawm txuj uas tsim nyog rau kev kawm autonomous. Ib yam li txhawm los lub sij ntawm hais mav, sociology pom hauv no nyob rau hauv lub zej zos uas lawv tsim tau los. Tab sis thaum sociology tuas notion tus neeg li founder, ces nws tau lub ntim uas yog uas liberating. Li ntawd, ib qho caav ntawm taub classical theorists, qhov tseem ceeb yog cov Disease fact tias lawv tau raug cuam tshuam dab tsi rau yav zaus txog keeb kwm yav dhau’ yog li lawv signify lub rooj saab laaj inhuman xaav. Tab sis, yuav ua li cas li cov criticisms uas zoo li cas yuav li lawv yuav anachronistic kwvyees yam tseemceeb continuing? Cov tswv yim puas muaj RESPONSIBILITIES uas niaj hnub? Vim li cas thiaj tshawb fawb sociology tshua? Tej zaum nws yuav tsis unhelpful rov nrog rau qhov teeb meem thaum kawg. Nws yog feem coob yuav paub tias lub tswvyim ntawm "zej zog’ yog tus abstraction xwb thiab tsis luaj ib nws lub npe rau txoj kev tshawv no. Ua piv txwv, Yog hais tias peb coj uas yog haiv neeg tsis, neeg xwb, sociology yuav tsum subsumed los ntawm txoj kev kho. Philosophers tau thov muaj ua txog lub tswvyim ntawm terminology thiab xwb li cas txog tej teeb meem muaj npe hu ua yog peb. Nyob ib ncig ntawm ib-tes, txhua yam pom tau ib cim thiab tej yam, seb peb nyob nraum tawm tswv yim txog cov neeg los yog txiv lws suav. Rau lwm-tes, peb ua subjective xwb lus rau actuality, kom pom tias peb tau txaus kev zoo sib thooj ntawm tej yam uas peb lees’ zoo li, ib yam kev painting lossis muaj qauv, los sis tej zaum tseem yuav tshuaj xyuas tej chaw ua Protestantism, liberalism, kev tsis ncaj ncees, los yog feminism. Txhua tug no yog chav phenomena, thiab ua txhua yam raws lub Durkheim pom tias "tus tag tsis tib qhov tawm ntawm nws cov ntsiab’ Nws yog ib yam dab tsi txawv" (Durkheim, 1982, p.128). Yog li sociology raws ntawm txoj kev kho, vim lub neej yog ib phau yog ntawm folks hauv lub koom haum, Nws yog ib tug gaggle, lwm cov khoom uas pab raws li thiab exerts txhob thiab siab dua nws cov neeg ib tug neeg. Peb tag tejzaum nws tej zaum yuav tsis tshua muaj neeg zoo-noj qab nyob zoo tus neeg rau daim pro psychoanalysis, Txawm li cas los lub neej peb twb sib txuas lus nrog lwm tus. Yog sociology nrauj thiab kuj theoretical ntawm lub neej uas yog tiag? Undoubtedly txawm theories uas muaj xws li qhov kev pab cuam feem ntau yog lub hom phiaj txujci loj tshaj yog muaj txoj hau kev tseem ceeb nineteenth xyoo pua thinkers txog lawv. Qhov kub siab rau tej txujci stemmed ntawm koj xav tsim ib cov kev cai siv tshuab, tsis muaj leej twg yuav tsis txais cov tswvyim hauv tiag sciences RESPONSIBILITIES. Thaum ntawv nrog rau kev tshawb nrhiav, lawv yuav kom daws tau tej teeb meem, thiab yog ib qho nruj me ntsis raws nraim qhov classicists sim zoo li cas. Ib tug ntawm Durkheim perceives' s ua hauj lwm rau qhov kev rhuav tshem, cov sijhawm uas siv Marx li tus British pej xeem, cov Engels cientific ua hauj lwm nrog cov tshiab muaj txoj tswj Liverpool. Tseem tsis piv txheej kom nco ntsoov tias tsis muaj tib hypothesis yuav tsum muaj tseeb txog. Yuav tsum tau muaj kev kawm RESPONSIBILITIES, sociology yuav tsum tsim thiab kho, tib txoj kev kev kawm tau paub ntau thiab tsim tshiab uas. Tiam sis qhov yooj yim tenets ntawm tej 'ology' tuav lawv lub ntsiab lus. Tsis muaj tus paub txog tej zaum yuav tsis kam tus RESPONSIBILITIES Newton txoj kev pab ntawm cov txheej txheem cov lus tsa suab, ho cov physics niaj hnub muaj progressed rau ib tus nqi extraordinary. Tej zaum lwm soj ntsuas ntaub ntawv ntawm sociology yog tias nws yog xwb predicated nyob zoo. Sociological cog ntau mas nws yeej zoo li hais tias lub cuab kev. Ob tug’ lub koom haum: peb yog ib tug tib neeg coob"tej zaum yuav yog ib tug qauv ntawm Simmel tus kub siab rau tej lub triad thiab raws li tus dyad. Tab sis muaj ntau lub laymen los saib zoo li cas nta qab qhov cuab kev tseeb tias lwm tus neeg tuaj txog alters ib near kev twb kev txuas tshaj ntawm ob tus neeg nres. Pliag tib yam, herbalists poj niam ntse tau pom zoo thiab kev tsis paub txog yog vim li cas lawv muaj: Piv txwv, cov kev pab ntawm qaug yog ib hom mob plawv tsis realizing txog koj tseem digitalis foxgloves. Tej zaum yuav muaj ib daim ntawv qhia txog ntiaj teb cov variation ntawm txoj kev paub vim ib qho txawv uas yuav tej zaum kuj yog tseem ceeb heev thaum nws tawm los tuag thiab lub neej thiab txoj kev tau taub tias txhua yam tej lub hom phiaj. Niaj hnub nimno cov kev tshawb fawb ntawm haiv yog ineluctably txuam nrog cov writings ntawm Weber Marx seb nyob rau kev siv los yog tej teeb meem. Capitalism, tsev kawm ntawv, raws li txoj cai thiab organicism yog dilemmas cov teeb meem uas kawm. Ib tug tsis tau xav txog tej yam pab txhua kev tshawb kawm hauj lwm, Piv txwv, uas tsis xav txog lub siab tsim ntawm cov nyiaj thiab lub sij hawm. Yog raug tau tsis txaus siab rau cov txheej xwm seb hoob kawm sociology xwb. Rau lub sijhawm uas nws Remaining nws cov enthusiasts rau koj yuav tsis tau thaum ntxov thiab, thiaj li, tsis xav ua thiab kuag tooj kuag hlau ntawm nug tiag kuj ua parts uas haib thiab cov loaded xav kom mus zov. Qho, lub tswvyim tseeb sociology xws li ib tug hotbed ntawm radicalism. Tsis txog cov lus tsis sib yuav tau uas tsis ua hauj lwm ntawm Marx.

Los yog nws tau mus nrog lawv tham txog cov ntaub ntawv, kev sib tham los yog qhov chaw ua hauj lwm ethic thawj tawm tswv yim txog Weber cov kev tshawb fawb tsis tau. Yog pab tau rau nws lub tswv yim txog qhov yuav unintended Weber capitalism, thiab ntxiv mus rau hauv txoj kev uas nws kev cob cog rua ob lub tswv yim seemingly unconnected thiab s ua hauj lwm nrog cov ethic. Hais tiag tej hauj lwm ntawm cov pa theorists tej zaum kuj tau raug yuam kev yog cov sau phau ntawv. Nws yuav tsis muaj uninteresting rau ntawm qhov uas cov hais mav lifeless yuav ua ntawm sociology niaj hnub, siv ib txoj hauj lwm. Rau lub imaginations ntawm lub xyoo pua nineteenth thinkers stimulated tawm lub tswv yim uas coj lawv sim thiab dhos tag nrho kev tshuab uas tau koom rau hypothesis thiab pom zoo los ntawm kev tshawb nrhiav thiab ntaub ntawv hauj. Without doubt lawv yuav tau txais ntau ntxiv txhim kho thiab specialisations uas tau siv, tab sis yog xav tias cas nws yuav tau ua li lub neej thaum lub sociology ntawm jazz nyuab nyuab heev, los yog cov pw. Qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws txog tag nrho cov subdivisions yog lub Disease fact tias tsuav yog tab sis xyov ces txoj kev tshawb no tag nrho cov txiv neej txoj kev sib tshuam uas yog kev cai.

Ib qhov caij ntawm txojsia uas yog tswm yog tus Disease fact tias ib seem yus pom tias nws lig yog muab los ntawm lub chaw nws nyob tom qab.

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